Thursday, January 16, 2020
Richard Brandt: Rule Utilitarianism Chapter two in our book Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment covers different philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s views on Rule Utilitarianism and how it is applied to misconduct and unlawful acts. In Richard BrandtÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion he raises three questions that should be addressed when identifying our American system of punishment. What is justifiable punishment for a criminals past actions? What are good principles of punishment? What defenses should be used as good excuses to keep someone from being punished? Our actions should be guided by a set of prescriptions the conscientious following of which by all would have maximum net expectable utilityÃ¢â¬ (Brandt, 1972). In Utilitarianism they choose the set of rules or practices that would produce the greatest net expectable utility if everyone followed them.Net Expectable Utility is a more positive outcome for a higher percentage of the population. Brandt believes our system of punishment is based on three assumptions: (1) Fear of punishment deters criminal behavior. (2) Imprisonment or fines make repeat offenders less likely. 3) Imprisonment stops the criminal from harming society while that person is in prison or incarcerated. Ã¢â¬Å"Punishment is itself an evil, and hence should be avoided where this is consistent with the public good. Punishment should have precisely such a degree of severity that the probable disutility of greater severity just balances the probable gain in utility (less crime because of more serious threat)Ã¢â¬ (p. 94). I have to agree with Brandt on this view because if the punishment does not fit the crime, criminal behavior is sure to be more prevalent.IÃ¢â¬â¢m a firm believer in scaring the malicious minds into acting lawfully and abiding by the law in order to keep the majority of the public safe. Brandt says that the cost should be counted along with the value of what is bought. This means to me that the punishment HAS to equal, if not be greater , then the crime. He also says that many criminals will go undetected and because of that some penalties will have to be so severe that the risks outweigh the gain in whatever the crime might be.Another agreeable point Brandt makes is that the more serious crimes should carry the heavier penalties not just for prevention of the crime but also to motivate the criminals to commit a less serious rather then a more serious crime. To make sure that the same punishment be inflicted on any social status, and that the same suffering is felt from the crime, Brandt says that heavier fines would be given to a richer man then to a poorer man. If a rich man were to receive the same fine as a poor man it may barely give him any suffering at all.While if a poor man met the same penalty financially as a rich man he may remain in debt for the remainder of his life. Brandt then begins to speak Jeremy Bentham and of such Ã¢â¬Å"excusesÃ¢â¬ that would not make a person criminally liable for a crime. He first mentions that a man who committed a crime that was not yet a law cannot later be punished for it. I have to agree here because you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t breaking the law if it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one yet. I also, however, believe that if that prior Ã¢â¬Å"non-lawÃ¢â¬ is severe enough and the evidence is still applicable in court then the person can be tried and found guilty after the fact.His second excuse is that the law had not yet been made public. In order for the public to know they are performing a unlawful act they must first know that what they are doing is against the law and can result in punishment and fines. The third excuse is that if the offender was an infant, insane or intoxicated they should also be excused of the crime. I think that underage and insane offenders may have a legitimate excuse, and the same may go for the intoxicated but in order for the intoxicated to be excused from punishment, it must not be voluntary intoxication.Bentham then says the offender can b e excused if they were ignorant of the possible consequences and thought they were acting in a lawful way. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with this view because it is the citizens responsibility to know that he or she is acting unlawfully and what the consequences of their actions may be. Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do thatÃ¢â¬ is something police officers hear all the time and if they let everyone who said that to them go free theyÃ¢â¬â¢d probably be out of a job. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s final excuse is Ã¢â¬Å"that the motivation to commit the offense was so strong that no threat of law could prevent the crimeÃ¢â¬ (Brandt, 1972).I believe that some offenders get angry enough to ignore the consequences of the crime they about to commit but this is still not excuse for breaking the law and the law should still be applied to these people. How would a judge be able to determine if someone was acting maliciously or out of pure emotion? Richard Brandt states that BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢ s legal defenses need some amending. He says that not punishing in certain cases will reduce the amount of suffering brought to the public by the law and that by not punishing in all of these cases will cause a Ã¢â¬Å"negligible increase in the incidence of crimeÃ¢â¬ (Brandt, 1972).Brandt says that the utilitarian is committed to defend the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"strict liabilityÃ¢â¬ in order to get a strong deterrent effect when everyone knows that all behavior of a certain sort would be punished. When speaking of impulsive actions that lead to criminal actions Brandt says that people who commit impulsive crimes in the heat of anger donÃ¢â¬â¢t think about the consequences of their action and therefore would not be deterred by a stricter law.He also says that these people are unlikely to repeat the crime so that a smaller sentence should be given to them in order to save a good man for society. I like this idea but I find it hard to agree with completely. Who is to say which crim es are impulsive and which crimes are premeditated? Of course, some circumstances make it obvious which are impulsive for example, a man saving a small child or woman from a kidnapper and killing them in the process, but many crimes can be called impulsive and therefore let a man who isnÃ¢â¬â¢t telling the truth receive a lesser punishment for his crime.Richard Brandt says that some say utilitarianism needs to view imprisonment for crime in the same light as quarantining and individual. He uses the example of someone being quarantined after being diagnosed with leprosy. They are taken away from public for the greater good of the public in order to not spread disease. We cannot treat criminals the same however. Criminals need to be shown punishment for their crime so going to prison cannot be made comfortable to them.It has to be a time of sorrow and pity so that it both fears prospective criminals and prevents criminals from becoming repeat offenders. Most criminals will be allowe d back into society after severing their time, lepers will never see society again. Ã¢â¬Å"There is a difference between the kind of treatment justified on utilitarian grounds for a person who may have to make a sacrifice for the public welfare through no fault of his own, and for a person who is required to make a sacrifice because he has selfishly and deliberately trampled on the rights of others, in clear view f the fact that if he is apprehended society must make an example of himÃ¢â¬ (Brandt, 1972) My favorite part of this section is when Richard Brandt compared the utilitarian view of punishment to that of a parent with a child. A parent lets the child know of the rules, about how to be safe, and about right and wrong. The child must know of the bad act before he or she can be punished for it. A parent will give a more severe punishment to their child according to what they have done to break a rule.The parent establishes rules for the Ã¢â¬Å"future good of the childÃ¢â¬ (Brandt, 1972). All this is done to make life at home tolerable and to ensure that the future of the child is a bright and successful one, punishment is an essential part of every one of our lives and whether we are avoiding it or being put through punishment, it is for the greater good. WORKS CITED Brandt, Richard. (1972). Rule utilitarinism (iii). In G Ezorsky (Ed. ), Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment (pp. 93-101). Albany: State University of New York Press
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
This question overlaps a bit with another common interview question, What will you contribute to our campus community? Here, however, the question is more pointed and perhaps more awkward. After all, you can make a wide range of contributions to a campus community. To be asked to identify just one thing that you do best is far more limiting and intimidating. As we think about a winning response, keep in mind the purpose of the question. Your college interviewer is trying to identify something that you are passionate about, something that you have devoted time and energy to mastering. The college is looking for something that sets you apart from other applicants, some skill or talent that makes you the unique person you are. Is an Academic or Non-Academic Answer Best? If asked this question, you may be tempted to use it as an opportunity to prove that you are a strong student. Im really good at math. Im fluent in Spanish. Answers such as these are fine, but they may not be your best choice. If, for example, you truly are good at math, your academic transcript, SAT scores, and AP scores already demonstrate this point. So if you answer this question by highlighting your math skills, you are telling your interviewer something that he or she already knows. The reason you have an interview to begin with is because the college has holistic admissions. The admissions folks want to evaluate you as a whole person, not as an empirical set of grades and test scores. Thus, if you answer this question with something that your transcript already presents, youve lost an opportunity to highlight a dimension of your interests and personality that cannot be gleaned from the rest of your application. Put yourself in the shoes of your interviewer. Which applicant are you most likely to remember at the end of the day?: The one who says she is good at chemistry or the one who has amazing skills making claymation movies? Will you remember the good spellerÃ or the one who restored a 1929 Model A Ford? This is not to say that you should steer clear of academics, for the college certainly does want to enroll students who are good at math, French, and biology. But when given the opportunity, try to use your interview to highlight personal strengths that might not come across so clearly in the other parts of your application. I Dont Do Anything Really Well. What Now? First off, youre wrong. Ive been teaching for 25 years and I have yet to meet a student who isnt good at something. Sure, some students have no aptitude for math, and others cant throw a football more than two feet. You may be inept in the kitchen, and you might have a third-grade spelling ability, but you are good at something. If you dont recognize your talents, ask your friends, teachers, and parents. And if you still cant come up with something you consider yourself good at, think about these possible approaches to the question: Im an expert at failing. Read any article on the characteristics of successful people, and youll learn that they are good at failing. They take risks. They try new things. They make mistakes and hit dead ends. And heres the important part--they learn from those failures and keep trying. Successful people fail a lot.Im a good listener. This interview question might make you feel uncomfortable because it is asking you to boast about yourself. If you feel uncomfortable tooting your own horn, is that because you prefer listening to speaking? If so, great. The world needs more people who listen. Embrace your listening skills.Im good at smelling the roses. Sadly, Ive met many applicants to highly selective colleges who are so driven to succeed both academically and in their extracurriculars, that theyve lived high school wearing blinders. Are you the type of person who loves to pause and appreciate the world around you? A strong student who can also treasure a beautiful sunset or a quiet s nowfall is someone who has found a healthy balance in life. Embrace this quality. Avoid the Predictable Responses Some answers to this question are perfectly safe, but they are also remarkably predictable and tired. Answers such as these are likely to make your interviewer nod in a gesture of bored approval: Im very responsible. Great, but your interviewer doesnt know you any better after that response. Your grades already show that you are responsible, and you havent given your interviewer a new and interesting dimension to your application.Im a hard worker. See above. Your transcript tells your interviewer this. Focus on something that isnt obvious from the rest of your application.Im good at writing (or biology, math, history, etc). As discussed earlier, a response like this is perfectly fine, but its a lost opportunity. Youre likely to get asked what you want to major in, so use that moment to talk about your favorite academic subject. And again, realize that your transcript shows what subject you have mastered. A Final Word If youre like me, a question like this is rather awkward. It can be uncomfortable tooting your own horn. Approached correctly, however, the question gives you a great opportunity to present a dimension of your personality that isnt obvious from your application. Try to find a response that identifies something that makes you uniquely you. Surprise your interviewer, or present a facet of your personality and interests that will differentiate you from other applicants. More Interview Articles Master These Interview QuestionsAvoid These Common Interview MistakesCollege Interview Dress for MenCollege Interview Dress for Women
Monday, December 30, 2019
Empirical Research for treatment of Intercultural Marriage According to Hsu (2001), intercultural marriage is Ã¢â¬Å"marriage formed by partners with relatively diverse cultural backgroundsÃ¢â¬ (p.225). This is prominently seen through the film, in which Toula, a Grecian-American marries Ian Miller, a Caucasian- American. This film depicts the conflict that surrounds this union prior to marriage, such as planning the wedding, navigating the cultural differences and gaining parental approval for the union. Although it is understandable that intercultural marriage comes with far more difficulties than depicted. Hsu (2001) discusses that intercultural marriage, as opposed to intramarriage, where partners are from the same cultural background, often go to couple therapy because the merger of the two individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural beliefs and values is causing conflict. However, because an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is embedded into their identity it is difficult to address cultural differences in a relationship. Consequently, a majority of the research available on treating intercultural marriage relates to the post-modern belief of social constructionism and narrative therapy. According to Biever, Bobele and North (1998), Ã¢â¬Å"understandings that are created about clientÃ¢â¬â¢s situations and the culture arise out of a mutual, collaborate construction of meaningÃ¢â¬ (p. 184). Social constructionism provides a collaboration between the therapist and the client that allows the client to assess differentShow MoreRelatedBeyond Sophisticated Stereotyping10228 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesConditions ? Academy of Management Executive, 2000, Vol. 14, No. 1 Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cultural sensemakingn i context Joyce S. Osland and Allan Bird Executive Overview Much of our cross-cultural training and research occurs within the framework of bipolar cultural dimensions. While this sophisticated stereotyping is helpful to a certain degree, it does not convey the complexity found within cultures. People working across cultures are frequently surprisedRead MoreGlobalization and It Effects on Cultural Integration: the Case of the Czech Republic.27217 Words Ã |Ã 109 PagesRepublic. As a way of encouraging integration, the ministry of culture represents intercultural dialogue within the state policy. The ministry also give support to cultural activities of members of national minorities living in the country, support for integration of members of the Roma community and immigrants. The Department of Arts, Libraries, Department of Media, and Audiovisual Policies have also supported intercultural projects. Non- governmental organizations such as: Organization for Aid to RefugeesRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesFoundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577 Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior Comprehensive Cases Indexes Glindex 637 663 616 623 Contents Preface xxii 1 1 Introduction What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 4 What Managers Do 5 ManagementRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pages2004 9 CHAPTER 1 NEW MANAGEMENT FOR BUSINESS GROWTH IN A DEMANDING ECONOMY 9 Dell. This has also been a basis for the resurgence of great technologydriven corporations such as IBM from the severe down cycles it had experienced. This marriage of leadership and technology capability can also be credited for the success of E-Bay. Some astute investors and managers long ago figured out this power of management capital in establishing their valuations of growth companiesÃ¢â¬âand with lucrativeRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 PagesKochtanek and Joseph R. Matthews The Complete Guide to Acquisitions Management Frances C. Wilkinson and Linda K. Lewis Organization of Information, Second Edition Arlene G. Taylor The School Library Media Manager, Third Edition Blanche Woolls Basic Research Methods for Librarians Ronald R. Powell and Lynn Silipigni Connoway Library of Congress Subject Headings: Principles and Application, Fourth Edition Lois Mai Chan Developing Library and Information Center Collections, Fifth Edition G. Edward EvansRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 PagesAuthors Erik W. Larson ERIK W. LARSON is professor of project management at the College of Business, Oregon State University. He teaches executive, graduate, and undergraduate courses on project management, organizational behavior, and leadership. His research and consulting activities focus on project management. He has published numerous articles on matrix management, product development, and project partnering. He has been honored with teaching awards from both the Oregon State University MBA program
Sunday, December 22, 2019
High School Senior Trip Ever notice how Time flies when youre having fun? In fact, when friends and vacation are involved, its even seemingly more so. After all, thats what the high school senior trip is all about. Clinton High School has always been known for its senior trips. While surrounding high school seniors were taking trips to Washington, D.C. and Disney World, the seniors at Clinton High School were cruising to the Bahamas. The graduating class of 1990 was no different. The bus ride to Florida, where we were to board the ship, was only the beginning. Everyone was excited about going on a cruise and anxious to get to the Bahamas. Due to the fact that we were all teenagers and no one in our graduating class hadÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Pillow fights on one deck and cross-dressing pageants on another deck. The pool was located on one of the upper decks. A lot of the girls were at the pool swimming and sun bathing. Most of the guys headed straight for the numerous lounges on board or either the casino. Consequently, a number of them were caught by the chaperones with alcoholic beverages in hand. Some of my classmates enjoyed a movie in the theatre that was on board the cruise ship. Others got a taste of the chefs gourmet cuisine. Need I mention that there were eight full meals served daily along with snacks and finger foods? At any given time aboard this ship you could go somewhere on deck to get something to eat. In the evenings there w ere parties on every deck. During this same time there were three different clubs open below deck. My fellow classmates were partying hard. One of my male classmates was caught with marijuana in his possession. Needless to say, he also got to visit the jail that was on board in what we called the dungeon part of the ship. The chaperones could not keep up with us, must less keep us under control. We had not yet even reached port in Nassau, Bahamas. The word was spread that we were having a class meeting in the theatre the following day. Everyone had to attend the meeting or we could not leave the ship once we docked in the Bahamas. The chaperones informed us that we were not allowed to be off of the ship during the evening hours. ThisShow MoreRelatedThe Annual Field Trip University Of California ( Uc ) Merced And Csu Stanislaus1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMoua survey sophomore students regarding the upcoming field trip to University of California (UC) Merced and CSU Stanislaus. After attending management meeting, I helped Moua organize schedules for tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s CSU workshop. Afterwards, I helped students complete their FSA ID. 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Saturday, December 14, 2019
Introduction Since the idea of a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) first entered the broader public consciousness in the early 1990s, there has been a remarkable reorientation within business, academic, and political circles in an effort to consider and better understand the nature of the North American relationship. The 1988 free trade agreement between Canada and the United States evoked intense debate and soul searching within Canada and comparatively little interest among Americans; but that situation changed as the horizons broadened to include Mexico and likely extension into other countries of Latin America, beginning with Chile. (Aggrawal, 363-372) By the early 1990s, Americans, along with Mexicans and Canadians, had fully entered into the dialogue. We will write a custom essay sample on NAFTA or any similar topic only for you Order Now Remarkably, although perhaps not surprisingly, the nature of the issues raised, anxieties expressed, and ambitions to be realized through a closer trilateral relationship articulated within one country have resonated in the others. Although the alliances of foes and advocates have varied in the three countries, there have also been remarkable similarities. Canadians and Mexicans have tended to be more directly engaged in a debate over models of development and strategies of dealing with their common neighbor than have Americans. The NAFTA Debate The NAFTA agreement touched on such a wide range of issues and areas, including financial services, foreign investment, the auto sector, textiles, agriculture, labor, and the environment in the side agreements that it should not have been surprising that it evoked strong sentiments among a variety of interest groups in the United States and Mexico, although the Mexican public debate was significantly muted by the more closed nature of the political system. In the United States, the opponents of NAFTA were strange bedfellows: organized and unorganized labor, environmentalists, consumer groups, the protectionist left, and the populist right of Ross Perot, variously denouncing the agreement as a big-business plot to take advantage of low Mexican wages and lax Mexican government enforcement of environmental standards and labor laws. (Andrea, 54-69) On the protagonist side, the administration and its supporters, which included arch-conservative Rush Limbaugh and corporate scion Lee Iacocca, contended that NAFTA would expand American markets, improve environmental and labor issues along the U.S.-Mexican border, and sufficiently improve economic and labor conditions in Mexico to result in a significant reduction in Mexican immigration pressure on the United States. (Peter, 44-56) The Impact of NAFTA Given the limitations of time and space, I will touch on a select range of areas in considering the impact of NAFTA to date: industry, labor, immigration, and the environment.Ã As with other issues, continuity here is more striking than any significant departure from the past. At the time of the conclusion of NAFTA, Mexico was, and remains, the third largest trading partner of the United States after Canada and Japan, although its economy was only five percent the size of the combined American and Canadian economies. In 1992, the United States was the source of approximately seventy percent of Mexican imports and the market for seventy-six percent of its exports. As the result of GATT and general tariff reduction in Mexico, Mexican tariffs on U.S. imported goods by 1992 averaged ten percent in contrast to the one hundred percent that prevailed in 1981. (Gallagher, 43-51) NAFTA will have no effect on the number of jobs in the United States NAFTA will have neither a significant negative nor positive impact on the environment It will produce a small overall gain in U.S. real income The real wages of skilled workers may decline slightly For the United States, NAFTA is more a foreign policy than an economic issue. NAFTA provided for the phasing out of tariffs on apparel and textiles over ten years, with some items to have duty-free access to Mexico immediately. All tariffs on autos and auto parts are to be eliminated over ten years; in agriculture, Mexico and the United States are to phase out fifty-seven percent of trade barriers immediately, ninety-four percent after ten years and one hundred percent after fifteen years. U.S. and Canadian investors are guaranteed national treatment with the right to seek binding arbitration in international tribunals, although the agreement excludes in this respect the Mexican energy and railway industries, U.S. airline and radio communications, and Canadian cultural industries. (Gilmore, 102-118) In the oil sector, PEMEX is to retain its monopoly over most of the industry, but non-Mexicans will be able to invest in petrochemicals, electricity generation, and coal mines; procurement contracts for PEMEX and MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s state electricity commission are also to be opened to foreigners; foreign banks and securities brokers are to have unrestricted access to Mexico by the end of the decade, although there are some restrictions on the sale of policies by U.S. insurers. (Andrea, 54-69) The agreement also provides for an elimination of most of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s tariff barriers on telecommunications equipment. Basic voice services remain protected but foreign investors are to have access to value-added telephone services. As a response to the significant political opposition to the original agreement in the United States, there are two side agreements for environmental and labor standards. The former is especially weak, providing for each nation to apply its own environmental standards provided they are established on a scientific basis and with the stipulation that lowering of standards in order to attract foreign investment would be Ã¢â¬Å"inappropriate.Ã¢â¬ (Aggrawal, 363-372) The two commissions established to deal with environmental and labor matters have the power to impose fines and remove trade privileges as a last resort when environmental standards or legislation pertaining to health and labor safety, minimum wages, or child labor are deemed to have been violated. Such fines would be levied on the governments not the private sector violators. (Francesco, 90-97) Labor. In 2005, Perot contended that the job losses to the United States as a result of NAFTA would be as high as 5.9 million. As The Economist suggested at the time, such a result was not feasible. For there to be a shift of even 2 million-and this is not to suggest that such a loss would be insignificant-Mexico would need a bilateral trade surplus of $100 billion, equal to one-third of its gross domestic product (GDP) in 1973. Gary Hufbauer and Jeffrey Schott of the Washington Institute for International Economics estimated, on the contrary, that NAFTA would generate a net increase of 171,000 jobs in the United States and that combined U.S. and Mexican GDP would ultimately increase by $15 billion a year. Yet another study, this one by the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, predicted that the net loss of U.S. jobs to Mexico would be 490,000. (Andrea, 54-69) Such wildly diverse predictions and analyses, even if one discounts PerotÃ¢â¬â¢s, suggest the inexact nature of economic forecasting as well as its ideological biases. Yet one also has to keep in mind that differences of 200,000 are not considered significant, since seasonally adjusted statistics employment numbers shift up and down by that magnitude on a month-to-month basis. There also seems to be a general consensus among economists, including the Chicago school, that open markets and deregulation lead to social and economic dislocation. The left and the right simply and fundamentally differ over what one does to correct that dislocation. (Peter, 44-56) Advocates of NAFTA countered critics on the issue of differential wage scales with the argument that firms would not relocate simply because Mexican wages are eight times lower than those for U.S. workers. If one considers that wages comprise only fifteen percent of production costs, that the cost of relocation, including potentially increased transportation costs, training of a new labor force and the lower level of productivity among Mexican workers, and fringe benefits including housing allowances and Christmas bonuses normally equal to one monthÃ¢â¬â¢s wages, the wage differential is significantly reduced as a factor determining capital location. As well, as productivity increases in Mexico, wages will also rise, which will also occur in the higher technology areas of employment, as for instance in the highly productive Ford plant in Hermosillo, Baja California. (Francesco, 90-97) Further, and perhaps most significantly, it could be argued that under the provisions of the maquiladora operations that had been in place for three decades, there had been more than ample opportunity to test the thesis that employment and investment would be diverted to Mexico. U.S. organized labor could identify only 96,000 pre-NAFTA jobs that had shifted to Mexico in the previous decade, and several of the firms involved-Smith Corona typewriters and Zenith televisions- would have either moved to Southeast Asia or gone out of business if they had not shifted operations to Mexico. In one of the sectors where Mexico enjoyed a clear comparative advantage over the United States-beet sugar production-Clinton acceded to pressures from U.S. interests to include a protective provision in NAFTA. (Gallagher, 43-51) In another sector-apparel manufacturing- where Mexico also enjoys considerable comparative advantage, it is anticipated that although there will certainly be short-term and possibly significant job losses to Mexico; in the long term, improved economic conditions in Mexico, rising wages, and increased consumer spending capacity will level the playing field between the two countries. The data on job losses and job creation tied to NAFTA are not very favorable to date. U.S. Department of Labor statistics suggest that the job loss in the United States has been slight. (Gilmore, 102-118) In the twenty months following the implementation of the agreement, 68,482 workers had applied for a special NAFTA program of federal retraining assistance while losing their jobs; 38,148 had been accepted under the plan, which requires proof that the job loss is trade-related although not necessarily specifically caused by NAFTA. Those applying for assistance represented some 457 firms located in forty-six states, including Allied Signal, Sara Lee, Smith Corona, Averred Battery, Zenith, and Proctor and Gamble, all of which had belonged to a pro-NAFTA lobby. (Andrea, 54-69) Department as well as American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) officials agreed that in northern California in particular the impact seemed to have been especially light. Only one firm, Plantronics, a designer and manufacturer of telephone headsets, had by 1995 laid off 60 of 300 workers at its Santa Cruz plant and moved their positions to Mexico. The marginal NAFTA impact on industries such as Plantronics appears to be linked to the fact the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s high-tech; white-collar industries are less susceptible to low-wage Mexican competition than other industries elsewhere in the United States. Nonetheless, this perception of a failure of NAFTA to increase U.S. exports and export-related jobs led the anti-NAFTA consumer advocacy group Public Citizen to claim without hard evidence 300,000 NAFTA-related job losses. This argument received support from Congressional critics of NAFTA. (Francesco, 90-97) Ohio Democratic Representative Marcy Kaptur, for instance, joined with others to form a bipartisan House group with plans to introduce a NAFTA Benchmarks Bill to suspend NAFTA and set quantifiable limits on the trade deficit, job losses, and currency rates that would trigger an automatic suspension of the trade agreement. Certainly, Mexico has increased its exports to the United States as well as its proportional share of U.S. imports; but, this would have occurred without NAFTA with the Mexican peso devaluation in the same way that a low Canadian dollar continues to stimulate Canadian exports. Immigration. It may be inappropriate to attempt at this early stage to examine what has been happening with Mexican migration pressures on the U.S. border during the two years NAFTA has been in effect, since the crisis in the Mexican economy has greatly exacerbated the problem. Nonetheless, it is useful to examine, briefly, the patterns in this area. Pro-NAFTA groups were adamant that an improved Mexican economy was the only long-term solution to high levels of Mexican migration-legal or illegal-to the United States, and I see no basis to reject that analysis. The fact remains that in the relatively short period since NAFTA was implemented there has been no easing of pressure on border points in the southwest. Nonetheless, I would stress that it is impossible to attribute this situation to NAFTA per se, at the same time that in the short term at least NAFTA has not in itself significantly alleviated the migration problem. That is a long-term issue, driven by cultural, economic, and political considerations, which will only be corrected if a relative degree of equilibrium is achieved on both sides of the border. (Gallagher, 43-51) At present, that is not even a fantasy let alone a realistic economic goal, and even if the economic situation were corrected, such issues as family reunification with the large indigenous Mexican-American population in the southwestern United States will work to encourage ongoing migration into the area. Environmental Issues. Environmental protection was a critical factor in obtaining congressional approval of the agreement in the U.S. Congress; yet one must recognize that it was and remains a side issue beside the main objectives of NAFTA, which are trade and investment liberalization. Hence, it is rather misleading to attempt to measure the success or failure of NAFTA in terms of the successes or failures of that side agreement. Nonetheless, what I believe has happened over the past several years is that analysts have begun to take a far more holistic approach to the understanding of international trade questions, much in the same way that analysts in strategic studies have gone far beyond their traditional weapon-counting approach to the discipline by taking into consideration a range of other factors that now are seen to threaten national security, including environmental degradation, poverty, and human migration. (Francesco, 90-97) MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s economic crisis has seriously undermined its capacity at the federal, state, and local levels to fund environmental clean-up and regulation of industries. Hence, although there has been notable new private investment in Mexican maquiladoras, there has been no significant investment in the infrastructure in the areas where those firms operate. There is little value in detailing here the level of environmental degradation that continues to characterize industrial Mexico. Such pollution is clearly not the direct result of NAFTA, but it is the result of a political and economic philosophy that attempts to separate trade matters from the quality of the environment in which we live and which places a premium on open markets, privatization, and deregulation. (Andrea, 54-69) There has admittedly been more attention to environment, labor standards, and culture in recent years than there was at the outset of the debate over the U.S.-Canada trade agreement, primarily because of the impact that labor and environmental groups have had on the political agenda in the United States; but it is questionable that the relatively weak institutions established to deal with environmental and labor issues will be radical in their approaches. In the longer term, all societies will pay a very high price indeed if those issues are not effectively addressed. Conclusion NAFTA has not simply failed to provide some of its promised benefits, but it has led instead to unemployment, environmental devastation, and serious health problems.Ã The few beneficiaries have been corporations who benefit from deregulation that reduces their costs and the free market that they largely control.Ã The North American Free Trade Agreement has proved a failure and at the very least must be revised in order to compensate for the damages that have occurred. As long as economic motives are behind any legislation, people and the environment will unfortunately always be expendable. To return to the main issue raised in this paper, the impact of NAFTA in its first two years the evidence remains preliminary. A combination of factors led to a dramatic increase in Mexican exports to the United States after NAFTA and a substantial shift in the favorable balance of trade away from the United States. As long as prices and the costs of production in Mexico remain low, proximity to the United States will likely serve to perpetuate that pattern. Mexican export opportunities will also provide continuing incentive for foreign investment in Mexican agriculture and manufacturing, as well as financial institutions. To date, the anticipated liberalization of investment in the extractive resource sector in Mexico has not been fully realized, especially in petroleum, and the continued significance and power of PEMEX in Mexican political culture suggests that any dramatic change in the petroleum investment environment is unlikely to come soon. At the same time, the decades of a highly protectionist Mexican economic policy are in the past, and there are no signs of a return to the import substitution model. In the United States, there is more volatility on the politics of trade and trade policy. Works Cited Aggrawal, R. and Kyaw, N.A. Ã¢â¬Å"Equity market integration in the NAFTA region: evidence from unit root and cointegration testsÃ¢â¬ , International Review of Financial Analysis 4, 2004: 363-372 Andrea Bjorklund et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Investment Disputes Under NAFTA (Ring-bound)Ã¢â¬ Kluwer Law International; Lslf edition, 2006: 54-69 Francesco Duina, Ã¢â¬Å"The Social Construction of Free Trade: The European Union, NAFTA, and MercosurÃ¢â¬ Princeton University Press, 2005: 90-97 Gallagher, Kevin Ã¢â¬Å"Free Trade and the Environment: Mexico, NAFTA, and BeyondÃ¢â¬ . Stanford University Press, 2004: 43-51 Gilmore, C.G. and McManus, G.M. Ã¢â¬Å"The impact of NAFTA on the integration of the Canadian, Mexican, and U.S. equity marketsÃ¢â¬ , Research in Global Strategic Management 10, 2004: 102-118 Peter Hakim Ã¢â¬Å"The Future of North American Integration: Beyond NAFTAÃ¢â¬ . University of British Columbia Press, 2005: 44-56 How to cite NAFTA, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Fine Art Essay Sketch aesthetics, also known as squishes, are preparatory sketches or paintings to quickly capture the idea off painting (Myers, N. , (2000-2013). The aesthetic of the sketch in the nineteenth-century France). This process was used frequently throughout the time of fine art. The Raft of Medusa by Curricular, and Mount Saints-Victoria broke traditional fine arts when they combined it with applied arts, which is the application of design to objects of everyday use (Applied Arts, 2013), The Raft of the Medusa is an oil painting of 1818-1819 by the French Romantic painter and Lithographer TheÃ ©adore GÃ ©auricular (1791?1824) (Raft of Medusa, 2013). GÃ ©auricular undertook extensive research and produced many preparatory sketches. He interviewed two of the survivors, and constructed a detailed scale model of the raft. His efforts took him to morgues and hospitals where he could view, first-hand, the color and texture of the flesh of the dying and dead (Raft of Medusa, 2013, Para. 2). This portrait depicts the essence of the gruesome fight that occurred at this naval appointment which was on widely controversial topic nickering the competence of the Ministry of Navy. Although The Raft of the Medusa retains elements of the traditions of history painting, in both its choice of subject matter and its dramatic presentation, it represents a break from the calm and order Of the then-prevailing neoclassical school (Raft Of Medusa, 2013, Para. 3). Mount Saints-Victoria sis series of oil paintings by the French artist Paul CÃ ©Zane (Mont Saints-Victory, 2013). This landscape is an iconic mountain in southern France that overlooks the Xix-en Provence. CÃ ©Zane often included a ketch of a railroad that ran alongside the mountain in his paintings. CÃ ©Zane praised the Mont Saints-Victory, which he viewed from the train while passing through the railway bridge at Arc River Valley and soon he began the series wherein he topological this mountain (Mont Saints-Victory, 2013, Para. 2). CÃ ©Zane was skilled at analysis. He used geometry to describe nature, and used different colors to represent the depth of objects (Mont Saints-Victory, 2013). As can concisely conclude that the Raft to Medusa by Curricular and Mount Saints-Victoria, in both their choice of subject matter and their presentation, they represent a break trot tine arts.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Should college Athletes Be Paid to play These days athletes are getting paid under federal labor laws and entitled to form unions and negotiate wages, hours and working conditions. Most college athletes these days are getting paid under the table according to Kenneth J. Cooper. This article explains why college athletes go to certain colleges. Donald Remy, the NCAAÃ¢â¬â¢s general counsel and vice president for legal affairs, says court precedents and tax laws have upheld the status of college athletes as students. Remy believes that student athletes are not employees under the law, and that they should not be treated as employees either by the law or by the schools they attendÃ¢â¬ . Tommy Amaker a former basketball star at Duke University now coaches at Harvard university menÃ¢â¬â¢s team said he could of got his education paid for at an incredible school but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to. To me I think I would of did the same thing because I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want free money that I di dnÃ¢â¬â¢t work for or didnÃ¢â¬â¢t win. We will write a custom essay sample on Should Athletes Get Paid or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page If he would of took it and got caught he would most likely get in trouble and duke university would have to get theirs wins and their banners token down. They would have to get their wins and banners taken down because once you violate the NCAA rule thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what the NCAA does because no one likes someone that breaks rules. I would for sure think they would get in trouble because the same thing happen to Derrick Rose and John wall for taking money from the university. When his teammates found out they were upset because all their hard work before and after the season didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even matter anymore. In this article it also talks about college athletes going to college but not for a education for the college experience, and to make it pro. I really agree with this because most college athletes would want to go pro and make the big bucks but sometimes it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always work like that. For example my cousin didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want an education all he wanted to do was make the big bucks and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what he did. Many at major collegiate programs never get a degree the NCAAÃ¢â¬â¢s own statistics show. Former players who did graduate may be less inclined to think they were employee athletes as the McCormicks call them. Do you think people play D1 sports for the love of the game or for a job? To me most people play for the love of the game and some play because their getting paid and to me when you get paid to play thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not right. Both Amaker and Hicks went to private schools and you woundlt think private schools would pay their players but they sure did. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what school you go to most students are going to get some type of money.